化学与英语

already的使用方法

副词“already”是最常被错误使用的单词之一。在我所阅读过学术论文中,对其使用超过一半是错误的。多数情况下,直接将句子中的“already”删去即可解决这一问题。

“already”通常用来表示某一动作已经结束,或者某一状态已经形成。但很多情况下即使没有它的存在,通过文章内容也可明确这一点。此时,就没有特意强调“已经结束了”的必要,即不必使用“already”。

 

以下是「already」的典型错误用法

(1) [误] This model was already investigated in Ref. [4].
(1) [正] This model was investigated in Ref. [4].

(2) [误] There have already been several long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.
(2) [正] There have been several long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.
(2) [正] There are several existing long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.

(3) [误] We already showed that Eq.(1) has a unique solution in the previous section.
(3) [正] We showed that Eq.(1) has a unique solution in the previous section.

(4) [误] As already mentioned above, the competitive equilibrium of this economy is inefficient.
(4) [正] As mentioned above, the competitive equilibrium of this economy is inefficient.

从上述例句可以看出,即使将“already”删去也能明确所对应的动作已经完成这一事实。

化学论文中的「already」使用实例

Such carbamoyl transfers have already been described by Hoppe for the transformation of thioenol carbamates, Snieckus and Percy as a route to acyl anion equivalents, and more recently by Clayden for N C aryl migration.  DOI: 10.1002/anie.201601883

However in the first publication it was already demonstrated that this method with a boronic acid as the aryl donor was applicable to a wide range of nucleophilic reaction partners, including phenols (C(aryl)–O bonds) and amines, anilines, amides, imides, ureas, carbamates, and sulfonamides (C(aryl)–N bonds). DOI: 10.1002/anie.200300594

This reaction has already been successfully employed in short syntheses of 3 and 6. DOI: 10.1038/nature05569

It has already been shown that these reactions can be considered as complementary to some of the classic reactions of organic synthesis and this will be further emphasized as additional ingenious applications of this chemistry to total synthesis are described. DOI: 10.1038/nature06485

本文出自 Enago学术英语academy(日文版)

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