化学与英语

already的使用方法

副词“already”是最常被错误使用的单词之一。在我所阅读过学术论文中,对其使用超过一半是错误的。多数情况下,直接将句子中的“already”删去即可解决这一问题。

“already”通常用来表示某一动作已经结束,或者某一状态已经形成。但很多情况下即使没有它的存在,通过文章内容也可明确这一点。此时,就没有特意强调“已经结束了”的必要,即不必使用“already”。

 

以下是「already」的典型错误用法

(1) [误] This model was already investigated in Ref. [4].
(1) [正] This model was investigated in Ref. [4].

(2) [误] There have already been several long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.
(2) [正] There have been several long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.
(2) [正] There are several existing long-term studies on the side effects of Ritalin on adults.

(3) [误] We already showed that Eq.(1) has a unique solution in the previous section.
(3) [正] We showed that Eq.(1) has a unique solution in the previous section.

(4) [误] As already mentioned above, the competitive equilibrium of this economy is inefficient.
(4) [正] As mentioned above, the competitive equilibrium of this economy is inefficient.

从上述例句可以看出,即使将“already”删去也能明确所对应的动作已经完成这一事实。

化学论文中的「already」使用实例

Such carbamoyl transfers have already been described by Hoppe for the transformation of thioenol carbamates, Snieckus and Percy as a route to acyl anion equivalents, and more recently by Clayden for N C aryl migration.  DOI: 10.1002/anie.201601883

However in the first publication it was already demonstrated that this method with a boronic acid as the aryl donor was applicable to a wide range of nucleophilic reaction partners, including phenols (C(aryl)–O bonds) and amines, anilines, amides, imides, ureas, carbamates, and sulfonamides (C(aryl)–N bonds). DOI: 10.1002/anie.200300594

This reaction has already been successfully employed in short syntheses of 3 and 6. DOI: 10.1038/nature05569

It has already been shown that these reactions can be considered as complementary to some of the classic reactions of organic synthesis and this will be further emphasized as additional ingenious applications of this chemistry to total synthesis are described. DOI: 10.1038/nature06485

本文出自 Enago学术英语academy(日文版)

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土生土长西安人,本+硕在陕师大,博士在日本冈山大学取得,博后在名古屋大学ITbM研究所伊丹研究室,有机化学研究生涯3+3+3,现职于西安交通大学理学院。擅长金属催化的偶联反应,博后期间开始合成糖化学,还有碳氢键活化研究。喜欢语言,旅游,网络,音乐,当然最最喜欢的还是化学。现为化学空间员工代表,小编兼美术。 自我描述:师范大学子弟,从小就在家门口上学,也没吃过什么苦,没想到学有机化学的这些年,高强度的实验把我锻炼成了不折不挠的女汉子。硕士毕业留学日本一待就快六年,坚持下来很佩服自己,而且也越来越喜欢有机化学了。 身为化学空间的员工代表,想把化学空间做成“化学人儿”的平台,也希望更多学化学,爱化学的人加入我们,用我们的力量让更多人能感受到化学的魅力。

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