化学与生活

夏威夷州对防晒霜成分的统制

(CNN)夏威夷州长大卫·艾格(David Ige)在2018年7月3日签署了一项法案,该法案是禁止使用含有对珊瑚礁有害的成分的防晒霜的禁令。法令从2021年1月1日开始施行。这是第一次在美国颁布此类法律。

法案在今年5月份在夏威夷州议会上表决通过,在正式施行后、禁止销售含有羟苯甲酮和辛酸盐作为紫外线阻隔成分的市售防晒剂

参与起草法案的非营利性学术团体发布了、防晒霜成分中的羟苯甲酮和octinoxate,从海水浴客户的皮肤上,或者通过污水处理设施流入海水,引起了珊瑚白化现象和遗传损害,并最终杀死珊瑚的调查结果。

CNN.co.jp 2018.7.4

珊瑚的白化是全世界的一个问题,但原因尚不清楚。一些研究人员怀疑人类使用的防晒霜成分是引起珊瑚白化的原因。[1]根据这一观点为基础,夏威夷州行动起来了。珊瑚礁一旦被破坏将需要很长时间才能恢复原状,因此一旦有一定的科学依据,这种法令对策在某种程度上可能是不可避免的。

作为一个从事化学的研究人员,相信大家对什么样的成分被禁止了肯定抱有一定的好奇心。首先让我们来看一下oxybenzone和octinoxate这两个化合物。

oxybenzone能够吸收270-350 nm的光、可以吸收紫外线UVB和UVA。另外,octinoxate也能吸收280-320 nm的光、它主要吸收UVA。由于结构也相对简单,因此合成并不那么困难。因此该两种化合物已被广泛用作防晒剂的成分。然而,这些成分被认为是引起珊瑚白化的嫌疑。无论事情的真相如何,一旦有这样的法案提出,并且被通过,以后夏威夷必将针对该类问题进行更深入的措施。

小编出于好奇心,查看了下自家用的一款防晒霜的成分,如下

聚二甲基硅氧烷, 水, 氧化锌, 乙醇, 甲氧基肉桂酸乙基己酯, 滑石, 肉豆蔻酸异丙酯, 甲基丙烯酸甲酯交联聚合物, 环戊硅氧烷, 十二烷, 奥克立林, 氧化钛, PEG-9聚二甲基硅氧基乙基二甲基硅油, 二乙氨基羟基苯甲酰苯甲酸己酯, 甘油, 二异丙基癸二酸酯, (乙烯基聚二甲基硅氧烷/甲基硅氧烷倍半硅氧烷)交联聚合物, 二氧化硅, 糊精棕榈酸酯, 木糖醇, 三甲基硅烷氧基硅酸酯, 双乙基己氧基苯酚甲氧基苯基三嗪, PEG/PPG-14/7二甲醚, NaCl, 茶提取物, 樱花叶提取物, 大麻果实提取物, 乙酰透明质酸钠, Tormentilla根提取物, 芦荟叶提取物, 水溶性胶原蛋白, PPG-17, 三乙氧基辛基硅烷, 异硬脂酸, 二硬脂基二甲基氯化铵, 二硬脂二甲铵锂蒙脱石, 氢氧化铝, 硬脂酸, EDTA-3Na, BHT, 生育酚, 异丙醇, BG, 焦亚硫酸钠, 苯氧乙醇, 香料

由于该产品声称50%是护肤成分,因此许多成分与此案无关。其中,吸收紫外线的化合物、有4种(粗体表示)。从名字来看既不包括羟苯甲酮也不包括辛酸氧化物,所以乍一觉得这东西应该可以在夏威夷使用。

 

We are the only one site can offer demo for 300-115 pdf almost all products. Cisco 400-101 exam Certification Exams And Successful CaseThree-dimensional defense of subnet segment: the head office data center deploys double redundant PIX535 fire wall, divides the head office network into multiple isolation network segments: internal functional network, 300-115 pdf external network, INTERNET, 400-101 exam etc.The isolation of 300-320 questions firewall prevents 300-320 questions security problems such as cross-network attack and internetwork interference. Meanwhile, the scope of virus infection can also be effectively controlled, which greatly improves the security of each network segment.The core switch of the business network USES two Catalyst6500 high-performance switches with IDS module to enhance security 400-101 exam monitoring of the business 300-115 pdf network through IDS module.OA network is a key part 300-115 pdf of security and a major part of internal security risks. Therefore, OA network USES two Catalyst6500 high-performance switches with IDS and Firewall modules.The Firewall module enables security isolation between virtual lans, which is important for large OA networks.Guangdong development bank network system, including the head office data center and branch network, all need with the Internet, online 300-115 pdf banking, a shekel of 400-101 exam silver coupon, and pedestrian liquidation, and other public information network interconnection, because these public information network is a completely open to the public information resources, so the 300-320 questions network interface as the most vulnerable to hacking and require special safety control, provide reliable security.Therefore, Cisco has adopted the current advanced Cisco PIX firewall products and advanced and reliable firewall technology to provide reliable security protection for the entire network system.PIX of NAT (Network Address Translation) function for guangdong development bank Intranet Address Translation of each workstation provide 300-320 questions dynamic or static gain legal external Address, such as well as to hide the internal Network, and can save the Address resource.In order 300-115 pdf to improve network reliability and eliminate single point of failure, cisco took measures to connect two PIX firewalls with a Failover cable to perform a two-machine thermal backup.Firewall as the only export bank internal network, with the Internet and other public information network interconnection security control, at the same time for each workstation to access external 300-115 pdf information network within the network address translation (NAT) function.The switch USES MAC address filtering for security control, allowing only specific hosts 400-101 exam to enter the PIX.The router is connected through multiple wan ports and provides certain security control to prevent illegal access and operation.In order to strengthen 300-320 questions the control and management of the whole network, deployment of the ACS and Cisco for guangdong development bank access control server and security Policy Manager (Cisco Secure Policy Manager), using CSPM powerful strategy management infrastructure, users can bank on the network security products for scalable, unified management.

Hierarchical integrated defense: cisco SAFE that successful security solution should adopt 400-101 exam integrated 300-115 pdf protection on the network infrastructure, and not only consider some special safety equipment.As a result, cisco has integrated security capabilities into its various network products to ensure that the entire network is fully integrated and three-dimensional.Guangdong development bank has implemented such a three-dimensional integrated security defense.Take the guangdong development bank’s outreach network system, for example, which USES three layers of integrated security protection, including 300-115 pdf routers, firewalls and switches.1, the first layer security protection provided by the router 300-320 questions 400-101 exam to achieve router in Internet/extranet 300-320 questions wan connection of public information network, such as DNS server with guangdong development bank, the WWW server and E-mail servers located in external PIX firewall, with these servers as part of the opening to the outside world, the 300-115 pdf ministry of internal and external users to provide 300-115 pdf 300-320 questions the corresponding services, its itself 300-115 pdf also become a part of the public information network.These servers in order to provide effective security, prevent the outside of the user to the illegal operation of the server, 400-101 exam the server, delete, modify, or the content, should be carried out to external access 400-101 exam can strictly control.With the firewall function of Cisco router, 300-115 pdf the 300-320 questions operation of external users on the servers can be restricted to prevent the servers from being damaged from the outside.2. The second layer of security protection is protected by PIX firewall, which completely separates the internal network of enterprises from the external network. 300-320 questions PIX is the only outlet for the internal network subsystems.By using PIX firewall to isolate the internal and external network, the security of the internal network is further guaranteed.PIX provides a complete record of all access, including illegal intrusion attempts.PIX realized from the network layer to application layer security protection, can be based on packet source address, destination address, TCP port Numbers and packet length on the communication 400-101 exam control, as a move method 400-101 exam to access is prohibited.3, the third layer security protection provided by 400-101 exam the LAN switches Catalyst 6500 core switches deployed IDS and firewall module, monitoring the safety of the complex intranets effectively, is the 400-101 exam third barrier against external attacks to 400-101 exam prevent, is a good method to prevent internal attacks.Another 300-320 questions Catalyst series switches have MAC address filtering function, therefore can be defined according to the need to switch each port, only allow specific MAC address 300-320 questions of the workstation through the specific port 300-320 questions access, port to communicate with the connection PIX.Due to the uniqueness of the MAC address and not configured, this kind of control, in fact, from hardware to control a specific machine, compared with the IP address filtering, this protection has higher security.Through the above three layers of security protection, guangdong development bank network system to realize the reliable from link layer to application layer security control, have the effect to prevent illegal access external, has the very high security.Reading this wasn’t the first time I’ve 300-320 questions paused to consider whether my heart’s and my people’s infatuation with 300-115 pdf autumn 300-115 pdf is 300-115 pdf not a worldly indulgence. The promise of the Kingdom is fullness of life, not pretty death. Halloween just 300-320 questions means “the night before the Saints” and all the gruesomeness on display represents the demons coming out one last night before the Saints arrive and 400-101 exam drive 300-320 questions them all away. A Christian may secretly treasure the festival for 400-101 exam that reason, but how can she join in when her place is not with the demons and decay, but with the Saints and salvation? Whence this covert delight in the season’s celebration of fear and death?

然而,把结构式画出来后・・甲氧基肉桂酸乙基己酯、不就是Octinoxate么!此外,由于它出现在配料表的开头,应该是主要成分。这也就意味着,2021年以后,在夏威夷应该是属于禁用品之列。

下次的全球最大的化学学会Pacifichem将在2020年12月在夏威夷举办、那时候该法令虽然还没生效。。。但是谨以此文章来呼吁大家要注意从我做起,保护环境哈。

 

参考文献

    1. C. A. Downs, C. A.; Kramarsky-Winter, E.; Segal, R.; Fauth, J.; Knutson, S.; Bronstein, O.; Ciner, F. R.; Jeger, R.; Lichtenfeld, Y.; Woodley, C. M.; Pennington, P. Cadenas, K.; Kushmaro, A.; Loya, Y. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70, 265 (2016). DOI: 10.1007/s00244-015-0227-7

本文版权属于 Chem-Station化学空间 欢迎点击按钮分享,未经许可,谢绝转载!

The following two tabs change content below.
LuWenjie

LuWenjie

京都大学药学博士,现某化学企业研究员,化学空间员工副代表,网页小编&翻译。

Related post

  1. 躲避Dead End「全合成・教你摆脱绝境的一手」②解析篇
  2. 史上最倒霉的化学家
  3. 周环反应的复合同电子对理论(一)
  4. Chem-Station Evening Mixer在日化学友人…
  5. 化学空间2016年人气记事排行榜
  6. 实验课程特别体验!铃木ー宫浦偶联反应 “体验套装”
  7. 化学空间2015年人气记事排行榜
  8. 日本的实验室管理(一)

Comment

  1. No comments yet.

  1. No trackbacks yet.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Pick UP!

微信

QQ

PAGE TOP